Office of Research and Development Publications

Innovative Biological Treatment Process for the Removal of Ammonia, Arsenic, Iron and Manganese from a Small Drinking Water System in Gilbert, Iowa (Phase 1: Pilot Evaluation)

Citation:

Williams, D., D. Lytle, C. Muhlen, M. Pham, AND E. Riddick. Innovative Biological Treatment Process for the Removal of Ammonia, Arsenic, Iron and Manganese from a Small Drinking Water System in Gilbert, Iowa (Phase 1: Pilot Evaluation). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-17/476, 2018.

Impact/Purpose:

Many regions in the United States have excessive levels of ammonia in their drinking water sources (e.g., ground and surface waters) as a result of naturally occurring processes, agricultural and urban runoff, concentrated animal feeding operations, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other sources. Ammonia is not regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a contaminant. Based on a 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) assessment, ammonia levels in groundwater are typically below 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and does not pose a direct health concern at levels expected in drinking water (WHO 2003); however, it may pose a concern when nitrification of significant levels of ammonia from the source water occurs in the drinking water treatment plant and/or distribution system. Specifically, nitrification, which is the conversion of the ammonia to nitrite and nitrate by bacteria, leads to distribution system water quality issues, such as potential corrosion problems, oxidant demand, taste and odor complaints, and elevated nitrite levels (Bremer et al.,2001; Fleming et al., 2005; Lee et al., 1980; Odell et al., 1996; Rittman & Snoeyink, 1984; Suffet et al., 1996).

Description:

Many regions in the United States have excessive levels of ammonia in their drinking water sources (e.g., ground and surface waters) as a result of naturally occurring processes, agricultural and urban runoff, concentrated animal feeding operations, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other sources. Ammonia is not regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a contaminant. Based on a 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) assessment, ammonia levels in groundwater are typically below 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and does not pose a direct health concern at levels expected in drinking water (WHO 2003); however, it may pose a concern when nitrification of significant levels of ammonia from the source water occurs in the drinking water treatment plant and/or distribution system. Specifically, nitrification, which is the conversion of the ammonia to nitrite and nitrate by bacteria, leads to distribution system water quality issues, such as potential corrosion problems, oxidant demand, taste and odor complaints, and elevated nitrite levels (Bremer et al.,2001; Fleming et al., 2005; Lee et al., 1980; Odell et al., 1996; Rittman & Snoeyink, 1984; Suffet et al., 1996).

URLs/Downloads:

GILBERT PILOT REPORT FINAL 5-30-18 WITH COVER FINAL.PDF   (PDF,NA pp, 1982 KB,  about PDF)

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (PUBLISHED REPORT/REPORT)
Product Published Date: 06/25/2018
Record Last Revised: 04/18/2019
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 341427

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

WATER SYSTEMS DIVISION