Drinking Water Treatment Source Water Early Warning System State of the Science Review
Bartrand, T., W. Grayman, AND T. Haxton. Drinking Water Treatment Source Water Early Warning System State of the Science Review. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-17/405, 2017.
Customers expect that when they turn on the tap, they will receive an adequate supply of high quality water. In most situations in the United States, that expectation is met. However, under some relatively rare circumstances, contaminants might find their way into the drinking water, resulting in unacceptable water quality. Contamination incidents have been caused by a wide range of sources including industrial and transportation related spills, non-point sources and urban runoff, intentional contamination and natural processes. The report evaluated several key studies conducted in the early 2000s to establish the current state-of-the-science and practice for source water early warning systems (EWSs). The report also identifies key research areas that need to be addressed to improve EWS.