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Analysis, Occurrence and Toxicity of Haloacetaldehydes in Drinking Waters: Iodacetaldehyde as an Emerging Disinfection ByProduct.
Postigo, C., C. Jeong, S. Richardson, E. Wagner, M. Plewa, J. Simmons, AND D. Barcelo. Analysis, Occurrence and Toxicity of Haloacetaldehydes in Drinking Waters: Iodacetaldehyde as an Emerging Disinfection ByProduct. Occurrence, Formation, Health Effects, and Control of Disinfection By-Products. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1190:25-45, (2015).
This research is part of the Safe and Sustainable Water Research (SSWR) Program, specifically SSWR 2.2.D, which focuses on water contaminants. Haloacetaldehydes are an important class of emerging (non-regulated), disinfection byproducts. Haloacetaldehydes were the third largest disinfection byproduct class by weight in a U.S. Nationwide DBP Occurrence Study. Why was this study done? This study was done because a) improved analytical methods are needed for the haloacetaldehyde disinfection byproducts; b) occurrence data in drinking water are needed; and c) in vitro toxicology data on the class (iodo-, bromo, chloro-) of the haloacetaldehydes are lacking. What is the impact to the scientific field in general and the Agency in particular? This book chapter provides the first known comprehensive summary of the analytical methods for measurement of haloacetaldehydes in water and their occurrence in disinfected water. A significant impact is the development of two analytical methods that are sufficient to analyze the group of 10 haloacetaldehydes. The~:e methods were then used to measure the concentrations of these 10 chemicals in source water and corresponding finished drinking water from six cities in three states. Based on cytotoxicity in a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell assay, the haloaceta.ldehydes as a class are more cytotoxic than other classes of disinfection byproducts. The data from this paper shed light on the relative occurrence of haloacetaldehydes in chlorinated and chloraminated water, and reviews their in vitro toxicity compared to that of other chemical classes of disinfection byproducts.
Chlorinated and brominated haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are consideredthe 3rd largest class of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by weight. The iodinatedHAL, iodoacetaldehyde, has been recently reported as an emerging DBP infinished drinking waters. Overall, iodinated DBPs, e.g., iodoacetic acids,iodoacetamides, and iodonitriles, are among the most genotoxic of all DBPsidentified. In this context, this chapter reviews the analytical methods available todate to determine HALs in water, and the concentrations at which they are presentin finished drinking waters. Since systematic toxicological effects have been onlyinvestigated for selected chloro- and bromo- HALs, a comparative study of thegenotoxicity and cytotoxicity of this DBP class to mammalian ce11s is alsopresented.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
INTEGRATED SYSTEMS TOXICOLOGY DIVISION