A Topical Overview of Cumulative Risk Assessment Concepts, Methods, and Applications (2007–2016)
Fox, M., B. Brewer, AND L. Martin. A Topical Overview of Cumulative Risk Assessment Concepts, Methods, and Applications (2007–2016). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland, , 28, (2016).
This is a select literature review of topics in CRA. As a published article it will allow the citation of an analysis conducted on a rich and diverse set of CRA publications relevant to assessment methods under development at EPA. It is in part the work product of a contract supported by the OSA to inform the CRA project.
Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. First, in assessing the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search by presenting a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications.