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Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles
George, I., M. Hays, J. Herrington, W. Preston, R. Snow, J. Faircloth, BJ George, T. Long, AND R. Baldauf. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 49(21):13067-13074, (2015).
Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three-phase LA92 driving cycle in a temperature-controlled chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-7 °C and 24 °C). The cold start phase and cold ambient temperature increased VOC and MSAT emissions dramatically by up to several orders of magnitude compared to emissions during other phases and warm ambient temperature testing, respectively. As a result, calculated ozone formation potentials during the cold starts were significantly higher during cold temperature tests by 7 to 21 times the warm temperature values. The use of E85 fuel generally led to substantial reductions in hydrocarbons and increases in oxygenates such as ethanol and acetaldehyde compared to E0 and E10 fuels. However, the VOC emissions from E0 and E10 fuels were not significantly different. Cold temperature effects on cold start MSAT emissions varied by individual MSAT compound, but were consistent over a range of modern spark ignition vehicles.
This manuscript communicates APPCD research activities on air toxics VOC emissions from mobile sources from the EPAct dynamometer study. Speciated VOC emissions from light-duty vehicles running on gasoline and ethanol blends at cold temperature from chassis dynamometer measurements at RTP are presented. The inclusion of these emission profiles in EPA's SPECIATE emission profile database is highlighted.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION
EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION AND PREVENTION BRANCH