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A workflow to investigate exposure and pharmacokinetic influences on high-throughput in vitro chemical screening based on adverse outcome pathways, OpenTox USA 2015 Poster
Leonard, J., R. Goldsmith, D. Chang, AND Yumei Tan. A workflow to investigate exposure and pharmacokinetic influences on high-throughput in vitro chemical screening based on adverse outcome pathways, OpenTox USA 2015 Poster. OpenTox USA 2015, Baltimore, MD, February 10 - 12, 2015.
The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.
Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) link known population outcomes to a molecular initiating event (MIE) that can be quantified using high-throughput in vitro methods. Practical application of AOPs in chemical-specific risk assessment requires consideration of exposure and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) properties of chemicals. We developed a conceptual workflow to consider exposure and ADME properties in relationship to an MIE and demonstrated the utility of this workflow using a previously established AOP, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Thirty active chemicals found to inhibit AChE in the ToxCastTM assay were examined with respect to their exposure and absorption potentials, and their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Structural similarities of active compounds were compared against structures of inactive compounds to detect possible non-active parents that might have active metabolites. Fifty-two of the 1,029 inactive compounds exhibited a similarity threshold above 75% with their nearest active neighbors. Excluding compounds that may not be absorbed, 22 could be potentially toxic following metabolism. The incorporation of exposure and ADME properties into the conceptual workflow resulted in prioritization of 20 out of 30 active compounds identified in an AChE inhibition assay for further analysis, along with identification of several inactive parent compounds of active metabolites. This qualitative approach can minimize cost and time by eliminating compounds that may have otherwise undergone additional analyses.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/POSTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DIVISION
EXPOSURE MODELING RESEARCH BRANCH