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Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern
Winters, B., M. Madden, M. Angrish, M. Stiegel, T. Risby, AND J. Pleil. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern. Society of Toxicology Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 13 - 17, 2016.
Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to elevate variability of biomarkers and volume of EBC collected. We examined the effects of breath frequency (f) regulation and fixed tidal volume (TV) on the variability of pH, cytokine concentration, and volume of EBC collected. Subjects were instructed to breathe either at their own natural TV and f (“spontaneous (S)”) or to breathe with a TV of 1 liter and a f of 10 breathes/min (“non-spontaneous” (NS)). Breath was collected for 6 or 10 minutes with up to 3 sequential samples. To assist subjects with maintenance of a NS breathing pattern, a Loccioni Gruppa device (Angeli di Rosora, Italy) provided auditory and visual cues for inhalation/exhalation duration and volume. Results indicated that EBC volume collected using the NS method for 10 minutes had lower variability (CV: ± 0.066) relative to the S breathing (CV: ± 0.152). There was no discernible difference in the EBC pH or variability of the pH between sampling time or pattern. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured, however detection limitations hampered strict statistical evaluation. These data indicate that providing subjects with a NS breathing method reduces EBC volume variability and may yield more consistent samples with repeated collections for noninvasive biomarker analysis. [This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and may not reflect US EPA official policy]. This investigation was supported by a pre-doctoral traineeship (NRSA T32 ES007126) from NIEHS.
This abstract is being created for submission to the annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in March 2016. The abstract reports on the data and conclusions derived from a new methodology for the collection of exhaled breath condensate which can be used noninvasively to monitor changes in response to pollutant exposures. The methodology is intended to minimize the variability of the EBC volume collected without alteration of other parameters such as pH. Research is covered under the EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. The research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. The research characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA. Product Description / Abstract
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CLINICAL RESEARCH BRANCH