EPA Science Inventory

Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

Citation:

Brown, R. AND Mike Borst. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System. Hydrological Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, 29(9):2100-2111, (2015).

Impact/Purpose:

This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types in the parking lanes – permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Pressure transducers installed in the underdrain collection tanks measured water level for 24 months. Level was converted to volume using depth-to-volume ratios for individual collection tanks. Using a water balance approach, the measured infiltrate volume was compared to rainfall volume on an event-basis to determine the rainfall retained in the pavement strata and underlying aggregate. Evaporation since the previous event created additional storage in the pavement and aggregate layers. More rainfall was retained in the pavement and aggregate layers as time between events increased and during warmer months with larger potential evaporation. Each PC section had more annual evaporation than all PICP and PA sections. While measureable, evaporation is a small contribution to the total water budget on an annual basis for these systems.

Description:

Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types in the parking lanes – permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). An impermeable liner installed 0.4 m below the driving surface in four 11.6-m by 4.74-m sections per each pavement type captures all infiltrating water and routes it to collection tanks that can contain events up to 38 mm. Each section has a design impervious area to permeable pavement area ratio of 0.66:1. Pressure transducers installed in the underdrain collection tanks measured water level for 24 months. Level was converted to volume using depth-to-volume ratios for individual collection tanks. Using a water balance approach, the measured infiltrate volume was compared to rainfall volume on an event-basis to determine the rainfall retained in the pavement strata and underlying aggregate. Evaporation since the previous event created additional storage in the pavement and aggregate layers. Events were divided into three groups based on antecedent dry period (ADP) and three, four-month categories of potential evaporation using historical pan evaporation records from a nearby site. There was a significant difference in rainfall retained among the various combinations of ADP and potential evaporation categories. More rainfall was retained in the pavement and aggregate layers as time between events increased and during warmer months with larger potential evaporation. Average cumulative evaporation from the permeable pavement sections for 134 rainfall events in 24 months was 5.2% of the cumulative rainfall volume, and the range was 2.4–7.6%. Each PC section had more annual evaporation than all PICP and PA sections. While measureable, evaporation is a small contribution to the total water budget on an annual basis for these systems.

URLs/Downloads:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10359   Exit

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Product Published Date: 04/30/2015
Record Last Revised: 04/16/2015
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 307674

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH