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Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects
Snow, S., J. Mcgee, D. Miller, V. Bass, M. Schladweiler, R. Thomas, Todd Krantz, C. King, A. Ledbetter, J. Richards, J. Weinstein, T. Conner, R. Willis, Bill Linak, D. Nash, C. Wood, S. Elmore, J. Morrison, C. Johnson, Ian Gilmour, AND U. Kodavanti. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects . TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Society of Toxicology, RESTON, VA, 142(2):403-17, (2014).
This study examined toxicity differences between exhausts of diesel and diesel with cerium as an additive. The study shows that diesel exhaust with added cerium will likely cause more injury to the lung on a mass basis and that cerium accumulates in the lung after inhaling soot generated with cerium doped diesel.
Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe >DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF y-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.