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Lead Adsorption into Activated Carbon: A Critical Review of the Literature
Salih, H., S. Musaad, G. Sorial, Craig L. Patterson, AND M. Schock. Lead Adsorption into Activated Carbon: A Critical Review of the Literature. Chapter 1, Advances in Environmental Research, Volume 34. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, Hauppauge, NY, 34:1-24, (2014).
Lead has been widely used in many industries due to its desirable chemical and physical properties such as its malleability and resistance to corrosion. However, Lead poisoning is a serious health hazard that causes severe damage to multiple target organs including kidney, liver, brain and the reproductive system. In drinking water, the most harmful sources of lead are water pipes and solders. If applied the optimal way, activated carbon (AC) is one of the best technologies available for lead removal via adsorption. This work is an attempt to provide the reader with a detailed description of the lead removal by AC. The research literature on adsorption mechanisms, along with selected influential factors, was explored. Research papers in the English language published as of 1984 were reviewed. Articles eligible for inclusion met the following criteria: 1) they discussed lead adsorption by AC, or 2) lead adsorption by AC composed part of the study under review. Research papers in the English language published as of 1984 were reviewed. Studies were initially identified through the search engine Science Direct by using the keywords "lead”, "activated carbon" and “heavy metals”. Subsequently, combinations of the keywords "lead", "activated carbon" "drinking water" and "Pb" were used. The Web of Science database was assessed to gain more insight into the issue. Data points were collected from the eligible studies. For the purpose of data collection, a study was eligible if it clearly stated the maximum capacity for lead as well as the experimental parameters such as the AC surface area or the AC and aqueous solution pH. Statistical analytical results were found to be in agreement with the literature. Lead adsorption strongly depends on pH and AC surface chemistry. Acidic AC was found to have the highest affinity for lead adsorption.
The use of activated carbon for lead removal from drinking water sources is a viable treatment technology. Lead is a regulated contaminant in drinking water with a primary Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 ppb (treatment technique). This book chapter provides a critical literature review of removal of lead from drinking water using activated carbon and recommends areas for future research.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH