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Cardiovascular impacts and micro-environmental exposure factors associated with continuous personal PM2.5 monitoring
Hammond, D., C. Croghan, H. Shin, R. Burnette, R. Bard, R. Brook, AND R. Williams. Cardiovascular impacts and micro-environmental exposure factors associated with continuous personal PM2.5 monitoring. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 24(4):337-345, (2014).
The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL′s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA′s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD′s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA′s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.
The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has provided extensive data on human exposures to a wide variety of air pollutants and their impact on human health. Previous analyses in the DEARS revealed select cardiovascular (CV) health outcomes such as increase in heart rate (HR) associated with hourly-based continuous personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures in this adult, non-smoking cohort. Examination of time activity diary (TAD), follow-up questionnaire (FQ) and the continuous PM2.5 personal monitoring data provided the means to more fully examine the impact of discreet human activity patterns on personal PM2.5 exposures and changes in CV outcomes. A total of 329,343 minute-based PM2.5 personal measurements involving 60 participants indicated that approximately 75% of these total events resulted in exposures < 35 µg/m3. Cooking and car-related events accounted for nearly 10% of the hourly activities that were identified with observed peaks in personal PM2.5 exposures. In-residence cooking often resulted in some of the highest incidents of one minute exposures (33.5 to 17.6 µg/m3) with average peaks for such events in excess of 209 µg/m3. PM2.5 exposure data from hourly-based personal exposure activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, household products) were compared with daily CV data from the DEARS subject population. A total of 1300 hourly-based lag risk estimates associated with changes in brachial artery diameter and flow-mediated dilatation (BAD, FMD, respectively), among others, were defined for this cohort. Findings indicate that ETS exposures resulted in significant HR changes between 3-7 hours following the event and exposure to smells resulted in increases in BAD on the order of 0.2 to 0.7 mm/µg/m3. Results demonstrate that personal exposures may be associated with several biological responses, sometimes varying in degree and direction in relation to the extent of the exposure.
URLs/Downloads:Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology Exit
DEARSMIESOURCE REVISION 11MAR2013.PDF (PDF,NA pp, 211.574 KB, about PDF)
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DIVISION
EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS & ANALYSIS BRANCH