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Updated US and Canadian Normalization Factors for TRACI 2.1
Ryberg, M., M. Vieira, M. Zgola, J. Bare, AND R. Rosenbaum. Updated US and Canadian Normalization Factors for TRACI 2.1. CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY. Springer, New York, NY, 16(2):329-339, (2014).
The objectives of this study is to update the normalization factors (NFs) of U.S.EPA’s TRACI 2.1 LCIA method (Bare, 2012) for the United States (US) and US-Canadian (US-CA) regions. This is done for the reference year 2008. This was deemed necessary to maintain the representativeness of normalization in view of updated characterization factors in version 2.1 of TRACI and updating emissions/resource uses in the national and US-CA inventory. Ideally, the NFs should be updated every fifth year according to Wenzel et al. (1997). Hence, there is a need for updated NFs since the latest NFs for the US used 1999 as reference year. As significant changes in production and consumption since 1999 are likely, the normalized results calculated with 1999 as reference might give misleading results, with respect to current decisions. The NFs calculated are specifically aimed at the US and Canada. The NFs can relate the impact scores to the average impact of a US or US-CA citizen per year, and should in principle only be applied, when the LCA results are dominated by life cycle phases or processes taking place within the US and/or Canada. However, it should still be sound to use NFs for the US and US-CA, as long as the life cycle is primarily within these geographical boundaries. If the NFs are used for life cycles primarily outside of US or Canada, then other NFs, which represent the particular region should be used. To make the updated NF a new US normalization inventory, with an updated reference year must be compiled. The US inventory is to be combined with the Canadian inventory from Lautier et al. (2010), to develop new updated NFs for both the US and US-CA. The NFs are calculated using TRACI 2.1 CFs. A contribution analysis of the US and US-CA inventory will be performed, highlighting the most significant substances in each impact category. An analysis of US industry is included within this paper, which shows the contributions of 416 industrial sectors on the environmental impact for the US. The sector analysis is based on the US Input Output Database for the year 2002. The calculated NFs will be applied to a real LCA study. Here the environmental impacts of an office workstation are presented, highlighting the applicability of the NFs. Included in this paper are discussions of the important data gaps and uncertainties in this study.
This is an updated normalization to match TRACI 2.1.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH