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Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive
Cassee, F., E. van Balen, C. Singh, D. Green, H. Muijser, J. Weinstein, AND K. Dreher. Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN TOXICOLOGY. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 41(3):213-29, (2011).
Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels which are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (CeO(2)) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coatings, electronics, biomedical, energy and fuel additives. Many applications of engineered CeO(2) nanoparticles are dispersive in nature increasing the risk of exposure and interactions with a variety of environmental media with unknown health, safety and environmental implications. As evident from a risk assessment perspective, the health effects of CeO(2) nanoparticles are not only dependent on their intrinsic toxicity but also on the level of exposure to these novel materials. Although this may seem logical, numerous studies have assessed the health effects of nanoparticles without this simple but critical risk assessment perspective. This review extends previous exposure and toxicological assessments for CeO(2) particles by summarizing the current state of micro and nano-scale cerium exposure and health risks derived from epidemiology, air quality monitoring, fuel combustion and toxicological studies to serve as a contemporary comprehensive and integrated toxicological assessment. Based on the new information presented in this review there is an ongoing exposure to a large population to new diesel emissions generated using fuel additives containing CeO(2) nanoparticles for which the environmental (air quality and climate change) and public health impacts of this new technology are not known. Therefore, there is an absolute critical need for integrated exposure and toxicological studies in order to accurately assess the environmental, ecological and health implications of nanotechnology enabled diesel fuel additives with existing as well as new engine designs and fuel formulations.
This publication is the first to characterize all commercially available ceria based diesel fuel addtives, showing they all contain CeO(2) nanoparticles. It is the first to take advantage of a natural experiment occurring in the United Kingdom's Newcastle air quality monitoring site describing the largest public exposure to engineered nanoparticles. USEPA's, NERL, air modeling has used informaion in this publication and air monitoring site to predict ambient air PM levels of ceria.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CARDIOPULMONARY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY BRANCH