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Journey on greener pathways: from the use of alternate energy inputs and benign reaction media to sustainable applications of nano-catalysts in synthesis and environmental remediation
Varma, R. Journey on greener pathways: from the use of alternate energy inputs and benign reaction media to sustainable applications of nano-catalysts in synthesis and environmental remediation. GREEN CHEMISTRY. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, Uk, 16(4):2027-2041, (2014).
Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. These processes include examples of coupling reactions, the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water or recyclable and reusable magnetic nano-catalysts in aqueous media or polyethylene glycol (PEG) using microwave (MW) irradiation or mechanochemical mixing. Micropine-structured catalysts, magnetic nanoferrites and their synthetic modifications with ligands, and decoration with other nano-metals serve as sustainable nano-catalysts in eco-friendly media. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) can now be doped with metal (Ag) and nonmetal atoms such as sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) to enhance its activity in visible light. This strategic approach attempts to fulfill most of the Green Chemistry Principles in a comprehensive manner and targets to generate sustainable functional chemicals that may find large-scale use with significant waste minimization.
Submitted to the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry by special invitation for celebration of '15 years of Green Chemistry'
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
CLEAN PROCESSES BRANCH