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Distinct Structural Behavior and Transport of TiO2 Nano- and Nanostructured Particles in Sand
Virkutyte, J., S. R. Al-Abed, H. Choi, AND C. Bennett-Stamper. Distinct Structural Behavior and Transport of TiO2 Nano- and Nanostructured Particles in Sand. M. Adler, F. Grieser, J.B. Li, and D. Prieve (ed.), Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, 443:188-194, (2014).
Environmental impact of TiO2 particles along with other widely-used nanomaterials as a new class of contaminants has recently emerged. Due to the lack of detailed information and proper understanding of their properties as a result of synthesis (nanoparticles vs nanostructured particles), there is a disagreement in interpreting their behavior and transport in the environment. In this study, we discuss the characteristic retention and breakthrough of commercially available TiO2 particles with unique nanoscale structure, i.e. well-defined nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured particles (NSPs), through sand under various reaction environments. NPs such as P-25 (30 nm) were completely different in terms of their physicochemical structure from NSPs, which may be more proper to be considered as micro or bulk TiO2 particles. Such observation undoubtedly evidenced an important finding that encapsulating NPs with stabilizers such as carboxymethyl cellulose abundant in the environment and changing their surface chemistry with pH and ionic strength greatly affected their dispersion in the aqueous phase and mobility through a clean quartz medium, while those strategies were not so effective for NSPs. Therefore, it is apparent that the terms NPs and NSPs should be more strictly differentiated in their use in order to avoid any confusion in assessing their mobility in the environment.
The main objective of this study is to provide scientific evidence that commercially available nano-TiO2 particles have different nanostructures (NPs and NSPs) and these differences highly affect their behavior and transport in porous medium. Furthermore, we are proposing that the term "NPs" to be more strictly used to describe certain nanoparticles and to differentiate those from "NSPs", therefore avoiding any confusion in discussing their mobility and potential impacts in the environment. Furthermore, we carefully selected four commercially available well-known TiO2 particles based on their unique physical structure and one home-synthesized TiO2 particles, and tested the transport of TiO2 NPs and NSPs through a porous medium under various reaction environments changing solution pH, ionic strength in the presence and absence of encapsulating agent CMC.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
WASTE MANAGEMENT BRANCH