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Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies
Ozkaynak, H., L. Baxter, K. Dionisio, AND J. Burke. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies. 5 Nature America, Inc (ed.), Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 23(3):1-7, (2013).
Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effects studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES) 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data; regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale CMAQ air quality model or based on measurements combined with local scale (AERMOD) air quality models; hybrid models that include satellite data; statistically blended modeling and measurement data; concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates; and population-based human exposure model (SHEDS and APEX) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including: daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions; daily hospital emergency department visits; daily myocardial infarctions; and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue.
The Purpose of this journal article is to serve as an introductory and overview paper for the planned Special Issue of the Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology (JESEE): Guest Editors: H. Ozkaynak, Lisa Baxter and Janet Burke, on Air Pollution Exposure and Health. The paper provides a background on the commonly used exposure metrics/tiers in ambient air pollution epidemiology and how they have been developed and applied in the following more detailed technical papers in this Special Issue. the anticipated outcome or impact is to inform epidemiologists that there are more sophisticated exposure prediction metrics than ambient monitoring data are available to enhance ambient air pollution epidemiology investigations.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
NERL-OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR