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Microglia in the Developing Brain: A Potential Target With Lifetime Effects
Citation:Harry, G. AND A. D. KRAFT. Microglia in the Developing Brain: A Potential Target With Lifetime Effects. Andrew Kraft, G. Jean Harry (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) (ed.), Submitted to: NEUROTOXICOLOGY. Elsevier, Shannon, Ireland, 33(2):191-206, (2012).
Microglia are a monocyte-derived cell serving multiple roles within the brain, many of which are associated with the immune and macrophage like properties. These cells are known to serve in a critical role during brain injury and to maintain the environmental homeostasis; yet, their defined roles during development have yet to be elucidated. Microglial actions appear to influence events associated with neuronal proliferation and differentiation during development, as well as, contribute to the pruning process for the removal of dying neurons and cellular debris and management of synaptic connections. These long-lived cells display changes during injury and with aging that are critical to the maintenance of the neuronal environment, yet may be altered by changes in the colonization of the brain or by inflammatory events during development. This review addresses microglia during brain development, both structurally and functionally, as well as the inherent vulnerability of the developing nervous system to inflammation/infection. A framework is presented for consideration of microglia as a critical nervous system-specific cell that can impact multiple aspects of brain development (e.g., vascularization, synaptogenesis, and myelination) and have a long term impact on the functional vulnerability of the nervous system to a subsequent insult, whether environmental, physical, age-related, or disease-based.
For publication in the NeuroToxicology Journal
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
EFFECTS IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION GROUP