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Indoor Molds and Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A Comparison of Selected Molds and House Dust Mite Induced Responses in a Mouse Model**
WARD, M. D., Y. Chung, L. B. COPELAND, D. L. Doerfler, AND S. J. VESPER. Indoor Molds and Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A Comparison of Selected Molds and House Dust Mite Induced Responses in a Mouse Model**. Chapter 1, Boyd Printing Company (B Print Services, Inc.), Albany, NY, , 222-235, (2012).
Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases. Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold's role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. The molds selected for these studies are commonly found indoors, associated with water damaged buildings and/or sick building syndrome. The studies objectives were to 1) elucidate the association between spedfic molds and allergy/asthma and 2) assess the relative allergenicity of these molds by comparing responses to those induced by house dust mite (HDM) using a mouse model. Female BALB/c mice received 1 or 4 exposures by intratracheal aspiration of 0-80 I-Ig of mold extract or HDM. Airway responses (PenH) to methacholine (Mch) challenge were measured on day 1. Serum and bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected on day 2 after the final exposure. Serum extract-specific IgE and BALF inflammatory cell counts are presented. Responses to mold extract exposure varied among the molds but multiple exposures were required to induce significant increases in extract-specific IgE and elevated levels of BALF eosinophil counts. To achieve similar results to those induced by HDM in the extract-spedfic IgE assay required 1.5X more Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and 2.25X more Epicoccum nigrum. However, Penicillium crustosum group did not induce a significant extract-specific IgE response at any dose level. Multiple extract exposures also induced significant change in airflow (PenH) following Mch challenge. The data suggest the capacity of molds to induce allergic responses varies. It also suggests there are threshold doses for allergic sensitization.
These studies indicate that molds should be assessed individually for their allergy induction potential. Importantly, our data suggest a threshold dose for the induction ofallergic responsiveness.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CARDIOPULMONARY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY BRANCH