EPA Science Inventory

Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

Citation:

Heaney, C. D., A. P. DUFOUR, K. P. BRENNER, R. A. HAUGLAND, D. C. Love, M. Serre, R. Noble, AND T. J. WADE. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN.

Description:

Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) water study, F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium perfringens were measured in wet sand at two marine beaches, Fairhope Beach, AL (FB) and Goddard Beach, RI (GB). Weather and environmental parameters were collected at the time of sand sample collection (8:00 AM). F+ coliphage recovery was evaluated by spiking MS2 into FB and GB sand. Enterococcus in sand was measured using cultural (CFU) and molecular (CCE) methods and Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and C. perfringens were measured using a molecular method only (CCE). Sand samples (72 per beach) were collected at three locations. FIB (≥2 per sample) were frequently found in sand. C. perfringens were detected in 100% of samples, followed by Enterococcus CCE (87%), Enterococcus CFU (72%), fecal Bacteroides (68%), Bacteroidales (53%), and F+coliphage (17%). Consistent differences in FIB in sand were not observed by beach or sample location. The strongest correlations between IoglO densities of FIB in sand were Enterococcus CCE with Bacteroidales CCE, followed by Bacteroidales CCE with fecal Bacteroides CCE, and Enterococcus CCE with fecal Bacteroides CCE. Enterococcus CFU and CCE densities were not correlated. Rainfall, water temperature, wave height, ebb tide, and the number of dogs on the beach were associated with increased loglO mean densities of FIB in sand.

Purpose/Objective:

During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) water study, F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium perjringens were measured in wet sand at two marine beaches, Fairhope Beach, AL (FB) and Goddard Beach, RI (GB).

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Projected Completion Date: 03/02/2013
Record Last Revised: 09/26/2016
Record Created: 03/31/2011
Record Released: 03/31/2011
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 234446

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION

EPIDEMIOLOGY BRANCH