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Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)
KINSEY, J. S., M. T. Timko, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, Z. Yu, R. C. Miake-Lye, P. Lobo, P. Whitefield, D. Hagen, C. Wey, B. E. Anderson, A. J. Beyersdorf, C. H. Hudgins, L. Thornhill, E. Winstead, R. Howard, D. I. Bulzan, K. B. Tacina, AND B. Knighton. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX). JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 62(4):420-430, (2012).
The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (S02), total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (C02), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, particle surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter and geometric standard deviation, and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 to 5(10)15 particles/kg fuel depending on engine operation and fuel type. In addition, significant and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of > 90% for the S02 and particle mass EIs and ~ 70% for the particle number EI with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion with the PM sulfate being reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel with the PM organics reduced by a factor of ~ 5 as compared to JP-8.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION
EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION AND PREVENTION BRANCH