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Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3
KINSEY, J. S., M. D. HAYS, Y. DONG, D. C. Williams, AND R. LOGAN. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 45(8):3415-3421, (2011).
This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). As part of these experiments, continuous emissions monitoring was conducted for black carbon (BC) and surface-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) using an aethalometer and photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS). In addition, time-integrated sampling was performed for bulk elemental composition, water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and trace semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) using corresponding X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), ion chromatography (IC), thermal-optical analysis, and thermal- or solvent extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The continuous BC and PAH monitoring showed a characteristic V-shaped curve of the emission index (EI or mass of pollutant/mass of fuel burned) vs. fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. The time-integrated EIs for both elemental composition and water-soluble ions were heavily dominated by sulfur and SO4 2-, respectively, with a ~2.4% median conversion of fuel S(IV) to particle S(VI). The OC and EC emission indices obtained in this study ranged from 37 to 83 mg/kg, respectively, with the EC/OC ratio ranging from ~0.3 to 7 depending on test conditions and engine type. Finally, the particle SVOC EIs varied by as much as two orders of magnitude with the distinct variations in chemical composition observed for different engine types.
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1106 SI KINSEY CHEMICAL.PDF (PDF,NA pp, 364 KB, about PDF)
1106 PAPER KINSEY CHEMICAL.PDF (PDF,NA pp, 3594 KB, about PDF)
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION
EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION AND PREVENTION BRANCH