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Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related
Sangani, R. AND A. J. GHIO. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Dove Medical Press, Aukland, New Zealand, (6):191-8, (2011).
That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2) the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 ug particulate matter (PM); this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress which is associated with a series of reactions including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle-related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and co-morbidity (e.g. emphysema and carcinogenesis) after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.
This is an article asserting that COPD after cigarette smoking is a particle related disease.
URLs/Downloads:INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE Exit
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CLINICAL RESEARCH BRANCH