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Exposure and Health Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Dioxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive - NOW IN PRINT IN THE JOURNAL
Cassee, F. R., E. C. van Balen, C. Singh, D. Green, H. Muijser, J. P. WEINSTEIN, AND K. L. DREHER. Exposure and Health Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Dioxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive - NOW IN PRINT IN THE JOURNAL. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN TOXICOLOGY. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 41(3):213-29, (2011).
Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels that are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (Ce02) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coatings, electronics, biomedical, energy and fuel additives. Many applications of engineered Ce02 nanoparticles are dispersive in nature increasing the risk of exposure and interactions with a variety of environmental media with unknown health, safety and environmental implications. As evident from a risk assessment perspective, the health effects of Ce02 nanoparticles are not only dependent on their intrinsic toxicity but also on the level of exposure to these novel materials. Although this may seem logical, numerous studies have assessed the health effects of nanoparticles without this simple but critical risk assessment perspective. This review extends previous exposure and toxicological assessments for Ce02 particles by summarizing the current state of micro and nano-scale cerium exposure and health risks derived from epidemiology, air quality monitoring, fuel combustion and toxicological studies to serve as a contemporary comprehensive and integrated toxicological assessment. Based on the new information presented in this review there is an ongoing exposure of a large population to new diesel emissions generated using fuel additives containing Ce02 nanoparticles for which the environmental (air quality and climate change) and public health impacts of this new technology are not known. Therefore, there is an absolutely critical need for integrated exposure and toxicological studies in order to accurately assess the environmental, ecological and health implications of nanotechnology enabled diesel fuel additives with existing as well as new engine designs and fuel formulations. The preparation of this report was funded in part by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment, The Hague, The Netherlands and also in part by PROSPEcT, which is a public-private partnership between the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the Technology Strategy Board and the Nanotechnology Industries Association and its members. The contents of this review reflect solely the view of the authors. The research described in this article has been reviewed by the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Agency, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
Paper describes the current state of science on both micro and 1 Major Agency Scientific or Technical Work Product nanoscale Ce02 toxicity as well as the characterization of diesel fuel 2 Important, Highly Visible Scientific additives containing nanoCe/Ce02 and their emissions.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CARDIOPULMONARY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY BRANCH