EPA Science Inventory

A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms

Citation:

McELROY, A. E., M. G. BARRON, N. BECKVAR, S. B. KANE DRISCOLL, J. P. MEADOR, T. F. PARKINGTON, T. G. PREUSS, AND J. A. STEEVENS. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms. Integrated Assessment and Management. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, 7(1):50-74, (2010).

Description:

This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body residue (CBR) toxicity metrics including data quality issues, lipid dynamics, choice of endpoints, processes that alter toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, phototoxicity, species and life-stage specific sensitivities, and biotransformation. The vast majority of data available on TRA is derived from laboratory studies of acute lethal responses to organic toxicants exhibiting baseline toxicity. Application of the TRA to various baseline toxicants as well as substances with specific modes of action (MoOA) via receptor mediated processes, such as chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and organometallics is discussed, as is application of TRA concepts in field assessments of tissue residues. As compared to media-based toxicity relationships, CBR values tend to be less variable, and less influenced by factors that control bioavailability and bioaccumulation. TRA can be used to infer mechanisms to toxic action, evaluate the toxicity of mixtures, and interpret field data on bioaccumulated toxicants. If residue effects data are not available, body residues can be estimated, as has been done using the target lipid model for baseline toxicants, to derive critical values for risk assessment. One of the primary unresolved issues complicating TRA for organic chemicals is biotransformation. Further work on the influence of biotransformation, a better understanding of contaminant lipid interactions, an explicit understanding of the time dependency of CBRs and receptor mediated toxicity is required to advance this field. Additional residue effects data on sublethal endpoints, early life stages, and a wider range of legacy and emergent contaminants will be needed to improve the ability to use TRA for organic and organometallic contaminants.

Purpose/Objective:

This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body residue (CBR) toxicity metrics including data quality issues, lipid dynamics, choice of endpoints, processes that alter toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, phototoxicity, species and life-stage specific sensitivities, and biotransformation.

URLs/Downloads:

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Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Start Date: 08/20/2010
Completion Date: 08/20/2010
Record Last Revised: 03/25/2013
Record Created: 03/01/2010
Record Released: 03/01/2010
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 220122

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB

GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION

IMMEDIATE OFFICE