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Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water
LYTLE, D. A., C. WHITE, M. N. NADAGOUDA, AND A. WORRALL. Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water. JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 165(1-3):1234-1238, (2009).
Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lead. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change observed after extended periods of aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to understand the surface morphology, shape and sizes. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were conducted to establish the crystal structure. The SEM, TEM and XRD results were compared over the period of time (14 days aging) to observe correlations between the crystal structure transformation and morphology. XRD results showed that on after precipitation of the experiment hydrocerussite dominated and after aging to cerussite (PbCO3) and á-PbO2 and ß-PbO2. Lead precipitates i.e hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase and oxidation state with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and small cubic to spherical structures.
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Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION BRANCH