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The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations, and Examples
Kang, Y. C., W. J. van Ooij, AND D. A. LYTLE. The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations, and Examples. Presented at 2007 AWWA WQTC Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 04 - 08, 2007.
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Corrosion control is a concern for many drinking water utilities. The Lead and Copper Rule established a regulatory need to maintain a corrosion control program. Other corrosion-related issues such as “red” water resulting from excessive iron corrosion and copper pinhole leaks can be the source of customer complaints and utility headaches. The need to predict corrosion tendencies is often an ongoing one as utilities need to predict how water treatment changes, blending of source waters, seasonal water quality changes or alternative source waters might impact corrosion of their distribution system materials. Corrosion control assessment is often performed using a pipe rig or loop system where metal release levels are compared over time in response to water quality changes. The disadvantages with this approach include cost, resources, and time to achieve results. Electrochemical corrosion measurement approaches are also available. Historically electrochemical techniques have not been effective at adequately predicting metal levels at the tap, which is ultimately necessary to understand with respect to the Lead and Copper Rule, and appear to most to be complicated. The advantage is they provide rapid results at a relatively low cost.