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BATS AND BT INSECT RESISTANCE ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES
PURUCKER, S. T., P. FEDERICO, T. G. HALLAM, K. S. KENNARD, G. F. MCCRACKEN, AND J. K. WESTBROOK. BATS AND BT INSECT RESISTANCE ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES. Presented at 14th International Bat Research Conference, Merida, MEXICO, August 19 - 23, 2007.
The overall objective is to develop watershed modeling tools for the immediate client (CVI) and their stakeholders in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. This research continues the contributions that REVA has made to the CVI toolset and adds modeling and decision support capabilities for more general use by managers. To facilitate the prediction and analysis of fish health issues by EPA Program and Regional Offices and other environmental agencies, process-based models that describe these processes will be implemented:
1. the expected trophic dynamics of the dominant fish species
2. the spawning and recruitment dynamics of the dominant fish species
3. the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and metals in aquatic biota
4. how physical habitat and chemical water quality impact fish feeding, reproduction, survival, and migration
To facilitate the use and application of these models, graphical user interfaces (GUI), supporting databases, and libraries of management scenarios will also be developed. Models will be linkable to integrated water quality and hydrologic models that simulate habitat characteristics (e.g., water depth, current velocity, water temperature and sediment loadings) that determine the survival, reproduction, and recruitment of fish and aquatic invertebrates. Similar to what has been achieved in REVA, frameworks based on the biogeography of fish will be developed to apply these models spatially for regional assessments of important fish health issues.
Objectives of this task between FY03 and FY05:
To provide modeling and decision support capabilities for aquatic resources compatible with existing geographic information (GIS) frameworks to evaluate effectiveness (and ultimately cost-benefit) of restoration activities planned in Region 3, initially the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region. This includes the primary interests in evaluating riparian zone restoration (using Rosgen methods) and acid mine drainage remediation.
To develop methods that explicitly link process models and spatial analysis methods across spatial and temporal scales.
To identify knowledge and information gaps in the integration of REVA and process models that enable projections of future ecosystem state.
To create a new generation of quantitative environmental assessment tools that explicitly address issues of scale, are not restricted in extent of application, and enable efficient rescaling (both spatial and temporal).
This research supports long-term goals established in ORD's multi-year research plans for Both GPRA Goal 2 (Water Quality) and Goal 8.1.1 (Sound Science/Ecological Research). This research will provide the tools to assess and diagnose impairment in aquatic ecosystems and the sources of associated stressors and to forecast the ecological, economic and human health outcomes of alternative solutions. Central to this task (as described in Goal 8) is the development and demonstration of methods to the states, tribes and local managers to: (1) assess the condition of waterbodies in a scientifically-defensible and representative way while allowing for aggregation and assessment of trends at multiple scales, (2) diagnose cause and forecast future condition in a scientifically defensible fashion to more effectively protect and restore valued ecosystems, and (3) assess current and future ecological conditions, probable causes of impairments and management alternatives.
A landscape model that utilizes land cover classification data, insect life history, insect movement, and bat foraging pressure is developed that addresses the implementation of genetically modified crops in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The principal strategy for delaying resistance in insects to Bt modified crops is a combination of a high Bt dose to the insect in the crop and the creation of a spatial refuge in close proximity so that susceptible insects will mate with insects that develop resistance. We examine the resistance population dynamics of the pest insects on a landscape of genetically-modified crops and refuges, including insect productivity for different land cover classifications and the effects of mass migration of susceptible moths from Mexico, then explore the impacts that differential foraging of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) on refuge insects can have on the dynamics of time to resistance. Model results have implications for the impacts of biotechnology on large bat populations, insect resistance monitoring in this area, and the value of agroecosystem services provided by bats.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY
ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH DIVISION
ECOSYSTEMS ASSESSMENT BRANCH