You are here:
TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY
MARTIN, M., R. BRENNAN, W. HUE, E. AYANOGLU, C. LAU, H. REN, C. R. WOOD, C. CORTON, R. J. KAVLOCK, AND D. J. DIX. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Society of Toxicology, RESTON, VA, 97(2):595-613, (2007).
Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to chategorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity.
Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated chemicals [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats at single doses of 300, 300, 175, 20, or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathology were measured at all time points. Gene expression profiling of livers from three rats per treatment group at all time points was performed on the CodeLink Uniset Rat I Expression array. Data were analyzed in the context of a large reference toxicogenomic database containing gene expression profiles for over 630 chemicals. Genomic signatures predicting hepatomegaly and hepatic injury preceded those results for all five chemicals, and further analysis segregated chemicals into two distinct classes. The triazoles caused similar gene expression changes as other azole antifungals, particularly the induction of pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress genes. In contrast, PFOA and PFOS exhibited peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor agonist-like effects on genes associated with fatty acid homeostasis. PFOA and PFOS also resulted in downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes, matching an in vivo decrease in serum cholesterol, and perturbation of thyroid hormone metabolism genes matched by serum thyroid hormone depletion in vivo. The concordance of in vivo observations and gene expression findings demonstrated the ability of genomics to accurately categorize chemicals, identify toxic mechanisms of action, and predict subsequent pathological responses.