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A PROBABILISTIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CAA - TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS: PART 1. MODEL METHODOLOGY, VARIABILITY RESULTS, AND MODEL EVALUATION
ZARTARIAN, V., J. XUE, H. A. OZKAYNAK, W. DANG, G. GLEN, L. SMITH, AND C. STALLINGS. A PROBABILISTIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CAA - TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS: PART 1. MODEL METHODOLOGY, VARIABILITY RESULTS, AND MODEL EVALUATION. RISK ANALYSIS. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 26(2):515-531, (2005).
The primary objective of this research is to produce a documented version of the aggregate SHEDS-Pesticides model for conducting reliable probabilistic population assessments of human exposure and dose to environmental pollutants. SHEDS is being developed to help answer the following questions:
(1) What is the population distribution of exposure for a given cohort for existing scenarios or for proposed exposure reduction scenarios?
(2) What is the intensity, duration, frequency, and timing of exposures from different routes?
(3) What are the most critical media, routes, pathways, and factors contributing to exposures?
(4) What is the uncertainty associated with predictions of exposure for a population?
(5) How do modeled estimates compare to real-world data?
(6) What additional human exposure measurements are needed to reduce uncertainty in population estimates?
Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children who may contact arsenic residues while playing on and around chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood playsets and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled the production of treated wood for residential use in 2003, the potential for exposure from existing structures and surrounding soil still poses concerns. The EPA's Office of Research and Development developed and applied the probabilistic Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives (SHEDS-Wood) to estimate children's absorbed dose of arsenic from CCA. Skin contact with, and non-dietary ingestion of, arsenic in soil and wood residues were considered for the population of children in the United States who frequently contact CCA-treated wood playsets and decks. Model analyses were conducted to assess the range in population estimates and the impact of potential mitigation strategies such as the use of sealants and hand washing after play events. The results show predicted central values for lifetime annual average daily dose values for arsenic ranging from 10-6 to 10-5 mg/kg/day, with predicted 95th percentiles on the order of 10-5 mg/kg/day. There were several orders of magnitude between lower and upper percentiles. Residue ingestion via hand-to-mouth contact was determined to be the most significant exposure route for most scenarios. Results of several alternative scenarios were similar to baseline results, except for the scenario with greatly reduced residue concentrations through hypothetical wood sealant applications; in this scenario, exposures were lower, and the soil ingestion route dominated. SHEDS-Wood estimates are typically consistent with, or within the range of, other CCA exposure models.