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ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)
U.S. EPA. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION). EPA/625/C-02/017, 2002.
This CD contains the original EPA/625/1-80/012 published in 1980 and the revision published in 2002.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehensive summary of onsite wastewater management since the U.S. Public Health Service had published a guidance on septic tank practice in 1967 (USPHS, 1967). The 1980 manual focused on both treatment and "disposal" of wastewater in general accordance with the approach and terminology in use at the time. The 1980 design manual stressed the importance of site-specific soil, landscape, ground water, and effluent characterization and included soil percolation tests as one of several site evaluation tools to be used in system design and placement. The manual's discussion of water conservation to reduce hydraulic flows, pollutant reduction to minimize contaminant loading, and management programs to oversee the full range of treatment activities was especially important to the developing field of onsite wastewater treatment in the United States and other countries. Technologies explored in the 1980 manual include the conventional system (a septic tank with a subsurface wastewater infiltration system), alternating leach fields, uniform distribution systems, intermittent sand filters, aerobic units, disinfection technologies, and evapotranspiration systems. The original manual also contains guidance on dosing chambers, flow diversion methods for alternating beds, nutrient removal, and disposal of residuals. Although much of that information is still useful, advances in regional planning, improvements in ground water and surface water protection, and new technologies and management concepts necessitate further guidance for public health districts, water quality agencies, planning boards, and other audiences. In addition, the growing national emphasis on management programs that establish performance requirements rather than prescriptive codes for the design, siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of onsite systems under- scores the importance of revising the manual to address these emerging issues in public health and water resource protection. USEPA is committed to elevating the standards for onsite wastewater management practice and removing barriers that preclude widespread acceptance of onsite treatment technologies. The purpose of this update of the 1980 manual is to provide more comprehensive information on management approaches, update information on treatment technologies, and describe the benefits of performance-based approaches to system design. The management approaches suggested in this manual involve coordinating onsite system planning and management activities with land use planning and watershed protection efforts to ensure that the impacts of onsite wastewater systems are considered and controlled at the appropriate scale. The management approaches described in this manual support and are consistent with USEPA's draft Guidelines for Management of Onsite/Decentralized Wastewater Systems (USEPA, 2000). The incorporation of performance standards for management programs and for system design and operation can help ensure that no onsite system alternative presents an unacceptable risk to public health or water resources. This manual contains overview information on treatment technologies, installation practices, and past performance. It does not, however, provide detailed design information and is not intended as a substitute for region- and site-specific program criteria and standards that address conditions, technologies, and practices appropriate to each individual management jurisdiction.
URLs/Downloads:ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (DATA/SOFTWARE)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND SUPPORT DIVISION
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER BRANCH