EPA Science Inventory

DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

Citation:

JASPERS, I., J. CIENCEWICKI, W. ZHANG, L. BRIGHTON, J. CARSON, M. A. BECK, AND M. C. MADDEN. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Oxford University Press, Cary, NC, 85(2):990-1002, (2005).

Description:

Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, which are also a major targets for inhaled DE. Using in vitro models of human respiratory epithelial cells, we determined the effects of an aqueous-trapped solution of DE (DEas), on influenza infections. Differentiated human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells, as well as A549 cells, were exposed to DEas and infected with influenza A/Bangkok/1/79. DEas enhanced the susceptibility to influenza virus infection in all cell models, and increased the number of influenza-infected cells within 24 hours post-infection. This was not caused by suppressing antiviral mediator production, since interferon (IFN) b levels, IFN-dependent signaling and IFN-stimulated gene expression was also enhanced by exposure to DEas. Many of the adverse effects induced by DE exposure are mediated by oxidative stress. Exposure to DEas used in these studies generated oxidative stress in respiratory epithelial cells, and addition of the antioxidant glutathione-ethylester (GSH-ET) reversed the effects of DEas on influenza infections. Furthermore, DEas increased influenza virus attachment to respiratory epithelial cells within 2 hours post-infection. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that in human respiratory epithelial cells oxidative stress generated by DEas increases the susceptibility to influenza infection and that exposure to DEas increases the ability of the virus to attach to and enter respiratory epithelial cells. Key words: influenza, diesel exhaust, in vitro, epithelial cells, oxidative stress

Purpose/Objective:

research results

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Start Date: 06/01/2005
Completion Date: 06/01/2005
Record Last Revised: 07/11/2008
Record Created: 03/28/2005
Record Released: 03/28/2005
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 119042

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB

HUMAN STUDIES DIVISION

IMMEDIATE OFFICE