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EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS
CRAUN, G. F. AND R. L. CALDERON. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS. 1Chapter 2, WOK Grabow (ed.), Encylopedia of Life Support Systems, Volumes I, II, III. Oxford Press, Oxford, Uk, , 1-36, (2005).
This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or other DBP mixtures), or technologies (e.g., chlorination of water). The health risks of populations or selected individuals are studied at the levels that are actually found in water systems. Investigators estimate exposure levels of the agent(s) or duration of exposure to the technology for the relevant time period (e.g., decades before the onset of cancer or months before an adverse reproductive outcome). In contrast, toxicologic studies expose experimental animals at much higher levels under controlled conditions. Both types of health studies are important to understand human health risks. There is also a need to better understand the chemistry of chemical disinfectants and their associated DBPs.
To review the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
HUMAN STUDIES DIVISION