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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH
LINDSTROM, A. B. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH . Chapter 23, Anton Amann, David Smith (ed.), Breath Gas Analysis for Medical Diagnostics. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore, , 337-346, (2005).
Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that unlike blood, breath collection is noninvasive and generally well tolerated by study subjects. This research has focused on demonstrating exposures to volatile compounds, establishing conclusive links between specific activities and corresponding body burdens of xenobiotics, characterizing uptake and elimination kinetics, and illuminating relevant pathways of exposure. In the past few years exhaled breath analysis has evolved to the point where it is now being used to help characterize biological responses associated with exposures to environmental pollutants.
This paper explores historical and newly emerging methods for the collection and analysis of exhaled breath for use in environmental exposure assessment studies. It discusses their applicability and limitations with respect to environmental research. Particular emphasis is placed on new methods and their utility for examining exhaled biomarkers of environmental pollution.
Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
The objective of this task is to develop state-of-the-art methods for measuring xenobiotic compounds, to include the isolation of the analyte from the appropriate matrix (extraction), preconcentration (typically sorbent-based), and analysis via GC/MS and/or LC/MS. Once established, these methods will be applied in small scale pilot studies or demonstration projects. Particular emphasis will be placed on methods which are readily transferable to other laboratories, including those within the Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD), the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL), other EPA Laboratories, Program Offices, Regions, and academic institutions.
Specific objectives of this task include the following:
1) Development of GC/MS and LC/MS methods for the measurement of key xenobiotic compounds and their metabolites (to include the pyrethroid pesticides, perfluorinated organic compounds, and the BFRs) in relevant environmental and biological matrices.
2) Development of efficient low cost methods for the extraction and clean up of these compounds collected from relevant matrices.
3) Determination of xenobiotic compound and metabolite concentrations in samples derived from laboratory and field monitoring studies to help assess exposures and evaluate associated risks.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DIVISION
METHODS DEVELOPMENT & APPLICATION BRANCH