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CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION
FREEMAN, N. C., P. HORE, K. BLACK, M. JIMENEZ, L. S. SHELDON, N. S. TULVE, AND P. J. LIOY. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 15(1):81-88, (2005).
The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the second day following a routine professional crack and crevice chlorpyrifos application in their homes. Before and following the video session, the children's hands were rinsed in isopropyl alcohol. Thus, only the chlorpyrifos that accumulated on and remained on the child's hands during the videotaping were removed for analysis after the video taping session. The rinsate was analyzed for chlorpyrifos. The children's behaviors were quantified using Virtual Tracking Device and the frequency and duration of behaviors, the hourly rate of behaviors, and the locations in which behaviors occurred were compared to hand loadings of pesticides. Pesticide hand loadings obtained following the videotaping sessions were associated with pesticide levels on surfaces and toys, but not with air levels. Pesticide loadings obtained following the videotaping sessions were also associated with frequencies, durations, and hourly rates of contact with bottles, and object to mouth behaviors, as well as contact duration with upholstered/textured surfaces. The hand loadings were also associated with the number of locations where the children exhibited object to mouth behavior and with children's use of house space during the videotaping sessions.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development partially funded and collaborated in the research described here under EPA Contract No. 0D-5227-NAEX to the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.
1. Identify and evaluate the factors that affect children's exposures as a function of age (for age bins proposed by EPA's Risk Assessment Forum).
2. Determine the impact of microenvironment and macroactivity on children's exposure to current-use pesticides and selected phthalates in residences.
3. Determine temporal variability of multimedia concentrations of selected pesticides and phthalates in the residences of very young children (0 to 3 years of age).
4. Perform aggregate exposure estimates for current-use pesticides (soon after application) and phthalates for very young children.
5. Evaluate the relationship between concentrations of biomarkers of exposure measured in urine and aggregate exposure estimates derived from diet and environmental measurements for pesticides and phthalates using the algorithms and approaches specified in the Draft Protocol for Measuring Children's Non-Occupational Exposure to Pesticides by all Relevant Pathways.
6. Evaluate and apportion exposure pathways for pesticides and phthalates.
7. Collect data for selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (brominated flame retardants) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFOS and PFOA) in the diet and in environmental samples collected in the residences to assess spatial and temporal variability and the potential for children's exposure.
8. Evaluate the utility of the draft standardized protocol for performing exposure assessments for young children.
9. Develop critical inputs for the human exposure models (SHEDS, CARES, Lifeline, Calendex, and others).
10. Collect preliminary data on environmental concentrations of selected metals found in the outdoor residential environment.
11. Evaluate the utility of standardized data collection methods for future large scale studies.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DIVISION
EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS & ANALYSIS BRANCH