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CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER
Cicmanec*, J L. AND J E. Smith* Jr. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER. ISBN 9241562730Chapter 26, Cotruvo, Dufour, Rees, Bartram, Carr, Cliver, Craun, Fayer and Gannon (ed.), Waterborne Zoonoses: Identification, Causes and Control. IWA Publishing, London, Uk, , 426-436, (2004).
For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineering and it is based on the premise that all of the steps and processes are inter-dependent and begin with source water protection and end with providing residual disinfectant for the water distribution system and safe transport to the consumer's tap.
Since there are many microbial agents that may be of concern to a drinking water treatment system and it is also recognized that developing a monitoring system for each of these would be practically impossible, prevention and multibarrier protection through treatment are the basics for successfully operating public water systems. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)/Water Safety Plan(WSP) approaches are also now being applied to determine the critical processes within the system where contamination can be measured and prevented. Some of the existing process control measures already in use in drinking water treatment plants employ these principles. The basic feature to be highlighted is that many non-microbial assays such as turbidity readings, particle counts, pressure drop and disinfectant residuals are presently being recorded at many facilities. These steps are followed since there is a need to prioritize limited laboratory resources to critical monitoring points so that the results provide the greatest information and benefit.
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Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND SUPPORT DIVISION
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER BRANCH