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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESULTING FROM UNCONFINED ANIMAL PRODUCTION
Robbins, J. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESULTING FROM UNCONFINED ANIMAL PRODUCTION. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/2-78/046 (NTIS PB280373), 1978.
This report outlines and evaluates current knowledge related to environmental effects of unconfined animal production. Animal species directly addressed include cattle, sheep, and hogs. All available date indicate that pollutant yields from pasture and rangeland operations are not directly related to the number of animals or amount of wastes involved. Rather, these nonpoint source problems are intimately related to hydrogeological and management factors and are best described as the results of the erosion/sediment phenomenon. Unconfined livestock production can cause changes in vegetative cover and soil physical properties that may result in increased rainfall runoff and pollutant transport to surface waters. The most common stream water quality result is elevated counts of indicator bacteria. Increased levels of inorganic and organic sediments with associated plant nutrients and oxygen demands may result from problem areas.