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GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES
Keane, B., S. Pelikan, G. Toth, M. Smith, AND S. H. Rogstad. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES. American Journal of Botany 86(9):1226-1238, (1999).
Genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci was examined in the common cattail, Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), using three synthetic DNA probes composed of tandemly repeated "core" sequences (GACA, GATA, and GCAC). The principal objectives of this investigation were to determine whether: (1) the previously reported almost complete lack of polymorphism at allozyme loci in this species was indicative of a reduced amount of genetic diversity at VNTR loci as well; (2) VNTR markers were informative about possible clonal propagation; and (3) significant differences in genetic structure of sampling sites were associated with differences in environmental levels of pollutants at those sites. Previously, widespread sampling across the eastern United States, surveying across ten allozyme loci, has detected only two genotypes, involving a difference at a single locus, among 104 populations. In this study, the amount of genetic diversity detected at VNTR loci: (1) among ramets (N = 40; 40 genotypes detected) collected at ~8-km intervals along a 320-km transect; (2) among ramets (N = 220; 117 genotypes detected) from five study sites separated by 50-3000 m; and (3) even among ramets within each study site [N = 44 per site; from 13 to 34 genotypes detected per site (270 m2)] exceeds that previously found in those more geographically widespread allozyme surveys. Among the 260 ramets analyzed here, the mean number of bands scored per individual was 48.61 (SD = 2.80). Mean genetic similarity among ramets collected along the 320-km transect was 0.91, which was within the range of mean genetic similarity within the five study sites (range: 0.89-0.95). Among the five study sites, 61% of the samples analyzed appeared to be clonal ramets, with up to 12 clones detected for 44 ramets sampled within a site. Clones grew intermingled and ranged up to 39 m in extent. Permutation tests of genetic similarity revealed significant genetic differentiation between each of the five study sites. Consistent with the previous allozyme studies, T. latifolia was characterized by extremely low genetic variation relative to levels of polymorphism detected at VNTR loci in other plant species. Estimated heterozygosity among ramets along the 320-km transect ranged from 0.11 to 0.13, while that within the five study sites ranged from 0.05 to 0.12. Estimates of F (0.32-0.41) also indicated considerable genetic subdivision among these stands. Significantly higher genetic diversity was detected at the two study sites that chemistry and toxicity data indicate to be the most severely impacted by pollutants. Although this correlation does not establish cause and effect, the results of this study indicate that the analysis of genetic diversity at VNTR loci may be a useful tool for monitoring anthropogenic-induced changes in the genetic structure of natural populations of plants.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT