APPLICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND COSTS OF BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS
Battelle. APPLICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND COSTS OF BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-03/037 (NTIS PB2003-104482), 2003.
A critical review of biological treatment processes for remediation of contaminated soils is presented. The focus of the review is on documented cost and performance of biological treatment technologies demonstrated at full- or
field-scale. Some of the data were generated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Bioremediation in the Field Program, jointly supported by EPA's Office of Research and Development, EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Waste, and the EPA Regions through the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program (SITE) Program. Military sites proved to be another fertile data source. Technologies reviewed in this report include both ex-situ processes, (land treatment, biopile/biocell treatment, composting, and bioslurry reactor treatment) and in-situ alternatives (conventional bioventing, enhanced or cometabolic bioventing, anaerobic bioventing, bioslurping, phytoremediation, and natural attenuation). Targeted soil contaminants at the documented sites were primarily organic chemicals, including BTEX, petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), organic solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, dioxin, and energetics. The advantages, limitations, and major cost drivers for each technology are discussed. Box and whisker plots are used to summarize before and after concentrations of important contaminant groups for those technologies considered to be state-of-the-art bioremediation options. The potential of emerging biotreatment processes is reviewed along with the challenges that remain to be solved before they become widely accepted remedial alternatives. Bioremediation technology selection and implementation practices are summarized, along with fundamental and emerging technology research needs and direction.