Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature
Su, C. Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature. JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 322(Part A):48-84, (2017).
This review article aimed at synthesizing recent literature on engineered magnetite nanoparticles alone or in nanohybrids used in environmental applications. It covers synthesis, fate, transport, toxicity, remediation, wastewater and surface treatment. This timely review will allow researchers and regulators to understand current status of nanosized magnetite with respect to its health implications and environmental applications. Interested people include program and regional partners, general public, and academia.
This review focus on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that take advantages of their superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition, hydrothermal process, emulsion, and microbial process. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for making excellent anode electrode materials in lithium-ion battery, for constructing biosensors, and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are made as antimicrobial agent for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dye, oil, arsenic, Cr(VI), heavy metals, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization.