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LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
Keoleian, G. A. AND K. Kar. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/023 (NTIS PB2003-101104), 1999.
The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory/policy analysis, life cycle cost analysis and a product/process performance analysis. These analyses highlighted significant tradeoffs among alternatives. The life cycle inventory indicated that the sand cast aluminum manifold consumed the most life cycle energy (1798 MJ) compared to the tubular brazed aluminum (1131 MJ) and nylon composite (928 MJ) manifolds. The cast aluminum manifold generated the least life cycle solid waste of 218 kg per manifold, whereas the brazed aluminum tubular and nylon composite manifolds generated comparable quantities of 418 kg and 391 kg, respectively. The life cycle cost analysis estimated Ford manufacturing costs, customer gasoline costs, and end-of-life management costs. The nylon composite manifold had the highest total life cycle cost which was about $10 greater than the two aluminum manifold designs. The use phase gasoline costs to the customer over the lifetime of the vehicle, however, for the composite and the aluminum brazed tubular manifolds were about $6 and $5 cheaper, respectively, compared to the cast aluminum manifold. In addition, 20 performance requirements were used to evaluate each design alternative.
URLs/Downloads:LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PUBLISHED REPORT/REPORT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH