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LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
Spitzley, D. AND G. A. Keoleian. LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA.600/R-01/059, 2001.
The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, a life cycle cost analysis, a product performance evaluation, and an environmental regulatory/policy evaluation. The life cycle inventory indicated that the vibration welded composite consumed less life cycle energy (1,210 MJ) compared to the lost core composite (1,330MJ) and the sand cast aluminum manifold (2,000 MJ). The manifold contribution to the vehicle fuel consumption dominated the total life cycle energy consumption (71-84%). The vibration welded composite also produced the least life cycle solid waste, 4.45 kg, compared to 5.56kg and 12/68kg for the lost core composite and sand cast aluminum, respectively. Waste sand from the sand casting process accounted for a majority (92%) of the solid waste from the aluminum manifold. End-of-life wste accounted for a significant portion (55-59%) of the total solid waste from the composite manifolds. Recycling scenarios for aluminum and nylon were investigated. Potential fluctuations in the availability of secondary aluminum would have a significant effect on the life cycle energy use of the intake manifold. Utilizing available technology for incorporating 30% post consumer nylon into the vibration welded composite manifold would reduce life cycle energy use by 4%. Similar effects for both aluminum and nylon systems were shown in other inventory categories such as CO2, solid waste and several air and water pollutant emissions. The life cycle costs were determined for the three alternative manifolds including the manufacturing costs, customer gasoline costs, and end-of-life management costs. This project also provided several observations on the barriers to the life cycle design process including the availability and accessibility of necessary data and institutional barriers such as the need for clear policy guidance.
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