Science Inventory

AN IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER:VOLUME 2 PERFORMANCE MONITORING

Citation:

Blowes, D. W., R W. Puls*, AND R. W. Gillham. AN IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER:VOLUME 2 PERFORMANCE MONITORING. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/095b, 1999.

Impact/Purpose:

information

Description:

A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground water at the site, in addition to treating portions of a larger overlapping trichloroethylene (TCE) ground-water plume which has not yet been fully characterized.

In addition to nine large-screen compliance wells, a monitoring network of approximately 150 small-screen sampling points was installed in November 1996 to provide detailed information on changes in porewater geochemistry through the barrier. This network was sampled seven times between November 1996 and December 1998 at 3 to 6 month intervals: November 1996, February 1997, June 1997, September 1997, March 1998, June 1998 and December 1998.

Eh values decline from background values between 100 and 500 mV (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode, SHE) to values as low as -580 mV SHE within the barrier. Groundwater pH values rise from background values between 6 and 8 to values as high as 11.74 within the barrier.

Low Eh and high pH values indicate that conditions are suitable for the reduction of Cr(VI), the precipitation of Cr(III) oxyhydroxides and the reductive-dechlorination of TCE within the barrier. Sampling results indicate that upgradient concentrations of up to 5.1 mg/L Cr are consistently reduced to less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of <0.05 mg/L within the zero valent iron barrier. In addition, the upgradient concentration of TCE (up to 5,652 5g/L) is being reduced to close to or less than the maximum contaminant level (5 5g/L TCE) within the permeable barrier. Cr(VI) concentrations of less than the MCL value were consistently maintained downgradient of the barrier. TCE and cis-1,2DCE (cDCE) concentrations of less than MCL values were maintained downgradient of the barrier for most of the sampling sessions.

High TCE concentrations (> MCL) were regularly measured in the deepest (7 m) downgradient monitoring points and in two downgradient compliance wells, one located at the western extent of the barrier and one located beneath the barrier. Due to the limited size of the barrier, this part of the TCE plume was not intercepted by the barrier. In the February and June 1997 sessions, TCE breakthrough at 17 and 6.8 5g/L (respectively) was observed downgradient of the barrier at one location, suggesting the presence of a zone of lower granular iron density or thickness. Although there is localized breakthrough of TCE contaminated water, the results suggest that TCE and Cr(VI) contaminated water that flows through the barrier is successfully treated to MCL values.

Vinyl chloride (VC) is also treated as the groundwater flows through the barrier. Occasionally VC concentrations downgradient of the barrier concentrations exceed the MCL (25g/L). This breakthrough of VC may result from inadequate residence time within the barrier, possibly due to higher than anticipated groundwater velocities within the barrier, or less iron thickness in the barrier than the design criteria.

Reactive transport modeling has been conducted to describe the performance of the permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, N.C. The conceptual model of the Elizabeth City site described in Volumes 1 and 2 of this document series (Blowes et al., 2000) provide the basis for the modeling study. The multicomponent reactive transport model MIN3P was used for the simulations. The model results provide estimates of the potential effects of the consumption of zero-valent iron and the precipitation of secondary minerals on the long-term efficiency of the treatment system.

URLs/Downloads:

Volume 3. Model

Volume 1. Design

AN IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER:VOLUME 2 PERFORMANCE MONITORING

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (PUBLISHED REPORT/REPORT)
Product Published Date: 09/01/1999
Record Last Revised: 08/08/2012
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 82416

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION

SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION BRANCH