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CONTROLLED RELEASE, BLIND TEST OF DNAPL REMEDIATION BY ETHANOL FLUSHING
Brooks, M. C., M. D. Annable, P. C. Rao, K. Hatfield, J. W. Jawitz, W. R. Wise, A L. Wood*, AND C G. Enfield*. CONTROLLED RELEASE, BLIND TEST OF DNAPL REMEDIATION BY ETHANOL FLUSHING. JOURNAL OF CONTAMINANT HYDROLOGY. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 69:281-297, (2004).
A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone was established within a sheet-pile
isolated cell through a controlled release of perchloroethylene (PCE) to evaluate DNAPL
remediation by in-situ cosolvent flushing. Ethanol was used as the cosolvent, and the main remedial mechanism was enhanced dissolution based on the phase behavior of the water?ethanol?PCE system. Based on the knowledge of the actual PCE volume introduced into the cell, it was estimated that 83 L of PCE were present at the start of the test. Over a 40-day period, 64% of the PCE was removed by flushing the cell with an alcohol solution of approximately 70% ethanol and 30% water. High removal efficiencies at the end of the test indicated that more PCE could have been removed had it been possible to continue the demonstration. The ethanol solution extracted from the cell was recycled during the test using activated carbon and air stripping treatment. Both of these treatment processes were successful in removing PCE for recycling purposes, with minimal impact on the ethanol content in the treated fluids. Results from pre- and post-flushing partitioning tracer tests overestimated the treatment performance. However, both of these tracer tests missed significant amounts of the PCE present, likely due to inaccessibility of the PCE. The tracer results suggest that some PCE was inaccessible to the ethanol solution which led to the inefficient PCE removal rates observed. The flux-averaged aqueous PCE concentrations measured in the post-flushing tracer test were reduced by a factor of 3 to 4 in the extraction wells that showed the highest PCE removal compared to those concentrations in the pre-flushing tracer test.