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COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS
Clark*, R M., M Sivaganesan, A Selvakumar*, AND V Sethi**. COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS. WATER RESOURCES 128(5):312-321.
Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negative impact on water quality. In most municipal systems less than 25% of the volume of the storage in tanks and reservoirs in actively used under routine conditions. Most of the water lies dormant which contributes to a reduction in water quality. System designs that utilize large tanks may be cost effective but may play a role in causing water quality to deteriorate. Designs that utilize a larger number of smaller tanks may have a lesser impact on water quality but may be less cost-effective. Cost models contained in this paper can be used to make these important cost-quality tradeoffs.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION