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MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
Varma*, R S. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. McGraw-Hill 2002 Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY, , 223-225, (2001).
The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst or catalyzed by the surfaces of inexpensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or "doped" surfaces. A variety of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reactions are exemplified including the efficient one-pot assembly of heterocyclic molecules from in situ generated intermediates such as enamines and ~-tosyloxyketones. The application of this emerging microwave technology and future outlook is summarized. The bibliography encompassing web sites information provides links to the state-of-the-art equipment available.