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PCDD/F, PCB, HXCBZ, PAH, AND PM EMISSION FACTORS FOR FIREPLACE AND WOODSTOVE COMBUSTION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION
Gullett*, B K., A. Touati, AND M D. Hays**. PCDD/F, PCB, HXCBZ, PAH, AND PM EMISSION FACTORS FOR FIREPLACE AND WOODSTOVE COMBUSTION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 37(9):1758-1765, (2003).
Emissions from residential fireplace and woodstove appliances burning fuels available from the San Francisco Bay area were sampled for polychlornated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), particulate
matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs, and the sugar levoglucosan. Emission factors for these pollutants were determined, the first known characterization of this extent. Common California natural firewoods and manufactured artificial logs were tested under operating conditions that reflect domestic use patterns in the Bay area, which are primarily episodic burning for aesthetic reasons. Emission factors were determined by fuel type, fuel weight, rates, and energy output, highlighting differences between fuel and combustion facility type. Average PCDD/F emission factors ranged from: 0.25 to 1.4 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg of wood burned for natural wood fuels and 2.4 ng TEQ/kg for artificial logs. The natural wood emission factors are slightly lower than had been estimated for the U.S. inventory. Background-corrected PCBs emitted from woodstove/oak combustion (8370 ng/kg) are three orders of magnitude higher mass than total PCDD/F, however their toxicity (0.014 ng TEO/kg) is significantly lower. HxCBz emission factors varied from 13 to 990 ng/kg and were likely fuel- and appliance-specific. Relative PAH concentrations of particle-phase compounds and emission factors were consistent with others' findings. Thirty two PAH compounds, ranging in concentration from 0.06 to 7 mg/kg, amounted to between 0.12 and 0.38% of the PM mass, depending on the wood and facility type. Preliminary analyses suggest relationships between wood combustion markers and PCDD/F levels.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION
AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH