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Improving post-detonation energetics residues estimations for the Life Cycle Environmental Assessment process for munitions.
Walsh, M., B. Gullett, M. Walsh, M. Bigl, AND J. Aurell. Improving post-detonation energetics residues estimations for the Life Cycle Environmental Assessment process for munitions. CHEMOSPHERE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 194:622-627, (2018).
This study examined whether air sampling or air modeling alone were sufficient to estimate energetic residues from military detonations for life cycle analyses. The study found that near-source residues on the ground constitute approximately 90% of the total residuals rather than air emissions.
The Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCEA) process for military munitions tracks possible environmental impacts incurred during all phases of the life of a munition. The greatest energetics-based emphasis in the current LCEA process is on manufacturing. A review of recent LCEAs indicates that energetics deposition on ranges during training is only peripherally examined through assessment of combustion products derived from closed-chamber testing or combustion product models. These assessments rarely detect any measurable energetic residues. Field-testing of munitions for energetics residues deposition has demonstrated that over 30% of some energetic compounds remain after detonation, which conflicts with the LCEA findings. A study was conducted in the open environment to determine levels of energetics residue deposition and if combustion product results can be correlated with empirical deposition results. Energetics residues deposition, post-detonation combustion products, and fine aerosolized energetics particles following open-air detonation of blocks of Composition C4 were quantified. The deposited residues amounted to 3.6 mg of energetic per block of C4, or less than 0.001% of the original energetics. Aerial emissions of energetics were about 7% of the amount of deposited energetics. This research indicates that aerial combustion products analysis can provide a valuable supplement to energetics deposition data in the LCEA process but is insufficient alone to account for total residual energetics. This study demonstrates a need for the environmental testing of munitions to quantify energetics residues from live-fire training.
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Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
AIR AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT DIVISION