Science Inventory

The State of the Practice of Construction and Demolition Material Recovery


Tolaymat, T., M. Krause, J. Smith, AND T. Townsend. The State of the Practice of Construction and Demolition Material Recovery. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-17/231, 2017.


This report summarizes the current state of the practice regarding C&D recovery in the continental United States, and the economic, community, and material-specific factors that influence the rate of C&D recovery. This report was developed to provide a resource to those interested in incorporating C&D recovery as an element of an SMM program. The information presented in this report is observational in nature and is not intended to provide regulatory interpretation or to recommend best practices for C&D recovery or approved uses for materials recovered from C&D. Rather, the objective of the report is to give the reader a fundamental understanding of the current state of the C&D recovery practice and the drivers that help shape it.


The C&D recovery industry continues to grow. Some components (e.g., concrete) are commonly recovered for existing economic reasons. Other elements―especially those with low market value and that frequently require processing to separate them from the rest of the C&D stream―remain a challenge to recycle in some cases. Many state and local governments have demonstrated that public policy can play a major role in advancing C&D recovery, and municipalities or other entities interested in growing C&D recovery in their areas can reference these examples. Data gaps remain in certain areas, such as the need to better 1) track the amount, composition, and disposition of C&D in the United States, especially as related to C&D recovery; 2) compile and disseminate successful strategies for C&D recovery while emphasizing caution around certain constituents that adversely impact human health and the environment; and 3) document the benefits resulting from C&D recovery.

Record Details:

Product Published Date: 05/01/2017
Record Last Revised: 04/13/2018
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 338319