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State of the Science Review: Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste By-Products for In-situ Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil and Sediment
Karna, R., T. Luxton, K. Bronstein, J. Redmon, AND K. Scheckel. State of the Science Review: Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste By-Products for In-situ Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil and Sediment. Scott Bradford (ed.), CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Taylor & Francis Group, London, Uk, 47(2):65-129, (2017).
The objectives of this review article are to: (1) summarize the current state of the science on in-situ treatment of metal-contaminated soils and sediments; (2) review the more recent use of non-municipal and non-hazardous waste by-products for use as soil and sediment amendments; and (3) identify physical and chemical properties that are indicative of the success or effectiveness of using a specific amendment to treat metals in contaminated soils or sediments.
Metal and metalloid contamination of soil and sediment is a widespread problem both in urban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. EPA, 2014). Beneficial use of waste by-products as amendments to remediate metal-contaminated soils and sediments can provide major economic and environmental advantages on both a site-specific and national scale. These waste by-products can also reduce our need to mine virgin materials or produce synthetic materials for amendments. Waste by-products must not be hazardous or pose unacceptable risk to human health and the environment, and should be a suitable replacement for virgin and synthetic materials. This review serves to present the state of science on in-situ remediation of metal-contaminated soil and sediment and the potential for beneficial usage of waste by-product materials. Not all unintended consequences can be fully understood or predicted prior to implementing a treatment option, however some realized, and potentially unrealized, benefits and unintended consequences are explored.