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3PE: A Tool for Estimating Groundwater Flow Vectors
Beljin, M., R. Ross, AND S. Acree. 3PE: A Tool for Estimating Groundwater Flow Vectors. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-14/273, 2014.
EPA Report (not high profile)
Evaluation of hydraulic gradients and the associated groundwater flow rates and directions is a fundamental aspect of hydrogeologic characterization. Many methods, ranging in complexity from simple three-point solution techniques to complex numerical models of groundwater flow, are available for use in hydraulic gradient estimation. In many situations where the potentiometric surface can be represented as a plane, three-point estimation methods will provide a rapid and cost-effective means for estimating gradients, particularly for initial evaluation purposes. The three-point solution method is well suited for implementation in a spreadsheet format. 3PE is an interactive spreadsheet developed in Microsoft Excel ® for estimation of horizontal hydraulic gradients and groundwater velocity. It is particularly well suited for analyses of temporal trends in hydraulic gradients. Site-specific investigation objectives, supported by an analysis of measurement uncertainty, provide the framework for determining the most appropriate measurement strategies and monitoring network designs for estimating hydraulic gradients.
URLs/Downloads:3PE: A TOOL FOR ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER FLOW VECTORS (PDF, NA pp, 4839 KB, about PDF)
ORD-009717 FINAL MANUSCRIPT APPENDIX C ROSS_RANDALL(1).XLSX