Science Inventory

3PE: A Tool for Estimating Groundwater Flow Vectors


Beljin, M., R. Ross, AND S. Acree. 3PE: A Tool for Estimating Groundwater Flow Vectors. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-14/273, 2014.


EPA Report (not high profile)


Evaluation of hydraulic gradients and the associated groundwater flow rates and directions is a fundamental aspect of hydrogeologic characterization. Many methods, ranging in complexity from simple three-point solution techniques to complex numerical models of groundwater flow, are available for use in hydraulic gradient estimation. In many situations where the potentiometric surface can be represented as a plane, three-point estimation methods will provide a rapid and cost-effective means for estimating gradients, particularly for initial evaluation purposes. The three-point solution method is well suited for implementation in a spreadsheet format. 3PE is an interactive spreadsheet developed in Microsoft Excel ® for estimation of horizontal hydraulic gradients and groundwater velocity. It is particularly well suited for analyses of temporal trends in hydraulic gradients. Site-specific investigation objectives, supported by an analysis of measurement uncertainty, provide the framework for determining the most appropriate measurement strategies and monitoring network designs for estimating hydraulic gradients.

Record Details:

Product Published Date:09/19/2014
Record Last Revised:09/09/2015
OMB Category:Other
Record ID: 287064